Anyone experienced diarrhea (osmotic, secretory or exudative), knows the sudden onset of cramps or abdominal pain, and frequency of visits to the bathroom with passage of loose, watery and soft stools plus bloating. Depending upon the severity may last a day or several days, and significant amount loss of water often accompanied by vomiting, may lead to dehydration, requiring fluids to be taken often or replenished. Dehydration is particularly dangerous to children and elderly to avoid serious health problems. Symptoms of diarrhea may be complicated by blood in the stool, weight loss and fever requiring medical attention. Most common causes of diarrhea include: Infections by other organisms, viral infections, eating foods that upset the digestive system (not well cooked or prepared), allergies to certain foods, radiation therapy, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, some cancers, reaction to medicines, and malabsorptions. In developing countries, five to eight million deaths annually caused by diarrhea due unsafe drinking water and inadequate or lack of sewage treatment (1, 2).
Many have experience at least one time diarrhea during a vacation or traveling to exotic locations were food and drinking water is contaminated with bacteria, viruses or parasites because of poor sanitary conditions. In 2007, estimated 55 million international travelers will visit countries and cities were diarrhea is an endemic including Africa, Latin America and Asia. According to Centers of Disease Control, approximately 10 million international travelers will contract diarrhea (3,4).
Iomai Corporation develops vaccines and immune system stimulants, administered through transcutaneous immunization (TCI): Needle free technology is an alternative method to administer a vaccine, placing a patch of medication on the skin to be absorbed over period of time, developed by researchers at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. (5). The skin patch is the size of a nickel (6). Ioma Corporation developed a vaccine for diarrhea called ETEC toxin, administered via a needle free skin patch using the company’s immunization technology. During a trial study of 59 people who had received ETEC toxin by patch — based vaccine before traveling to Mexico and Guatemala, three suffered severe or moderate diarrhea (3,4). Iomai’s chief scientific officer acknowledged some patients develop a red spot that lasted several weeks (6). Herbert L. DuPont, MD, professor and director of the Center for Infectious Disease at the University of Texas School of Public Health and primary investigator on the trial said: “The results presented to ICACC (47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy) are the most robust ever shown in the prevention of travelers’ diarrhea, and they suggest we may be near a turning point in the prevention of this common, often — serious disease.” The research trial conducted with researchers from John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the University of Texas School of Public Health (5).
In 2008, Iomai Corporation plans to begin Phase three program to further prove the effectiveness for the needle — free ETEC toxin vaccine patch (3,7). If phase three program can be proven successful, provide the foundation to seek Food and Drug Administration approval.
Ioma Corporation Chief Executive Officer Stanley C. Erck said: “This is a pressing, unmet medical need. Traveler’s diarrhea is the most common travel ailment in the world, yet there are no effective vaccines available for the condition. A recently completed market study suggests that there is a $750 million market for effective protection against travelers’ diarrhea, an opportunity that we are well — positioned to target (3).”
1. – Digestive Diseases Home – Diarrhea
2. – eMedicineHealth.com – Diarrhea + Wikipedia – Diarrhea
3. – Medicalnewstoday.com – Ioma Patch-Based Vaccine Cut Rate of Traveler’s Diarrhea by 75 Percent in Phase 2 Field Study – September 19, 2007
4. – chron.com – Vaccine could do away with traveler’s diarrhea by Alex Grant – September 19, 2007
5. – FinanzaNachrichteren.de.com – Ioma Patch – Based Vaccine Cut Rate of Traveller’s Diarrhea by 75 Percent in Phase 2 Field Study – September 18, 2007
6. – TheSeattletimes.com – Traveler’s diarrhea vaccine shows promising results
7. – prnewswire.com – Ioma Patch – Based Vaccine Cute Rate of Travelers’ Diarrhea by 75 Percent in Phase 2 Field Study